Figures 1–13 inclusive show the morphological development of the basidium from the primordial stage through the mature basiium with spores. The nuclear conditions are representative only for these particular examples. All figures x1100. Fig. 1. Enlarged terminal hyphal cell, the basidial primordium, with two nuclei.
Fig. 2. Production of the hypobasidium as a lateral expansion for the primordium.
Fig. 3. Hypobasidium enlarging, the nuclei moving toward the enlarging secondary portion of the hypobasidium.
Fig. 5. Mature hypobasidium with fusion nucleus; epibasidium arising at the apical end of the primordium.
Fig. 6. Nucleus migrating through the primordium; hypobasidium collapsing as the protoplasm withdraws; epibasidium elongating.
Fig. 7. Continued elongation of the epibasidium and withdrawal of protoplasm from the hypobasidium.
Fig. 8. Nucleus in enlarging epibasidium; hypobasidium entirely empty.
Fig. 9. Enlarging epibasidium.
Fig. 10. Epibasidium bending over.
Fig. 11. Epibasidium two-septate, following the first meiotic division; protoplasm withdrawn partly from lower portions.
Fig. 12. Epibasidium three-septate, 4-nucleate; budding sterigmata; the lower portions of the epibasidium collapsing, completely drained of protoplasm.
Fig. 13. Mature basidium with spores in place.
Fig, 14. Hyphal cells. a, d, young cells in which four nuclei are present, for the wall is not yet formed; b, c, older cells with increased reduction of protoplasm x1865.
Fig. 15. Origin of a branch from a subterminal cell; the terminal cell constitutes a basidial primordium. x 1865.
Fig. 16. Basidial proliferation (See also fig. 18d.) x 1100.
Fig. 17. Developing epibasidia showing a crimp between the epibasidium and hypobasidium. x 1000.
Fig. 18. Variations in hypobasidial form. a, b, constricted hypobasidia; c. horizontal hypobasidium; d, e, pendent hypobasidia; f, g, extreme distal constriction. X 1100.
Fig. 19. Composite view of the fructification on a wood substratum as seen in section. x 464.
Fig. 20. Scales to illustrate the proportion of fruiting and hyphal regions in differently developed fructifications. x 100.
Fig. 21. a, b, basidia arising from lateral branches. x 1100
Fig. 22. Origin of epibasidium prior to appearance of hypobasidium. x 1865.
Fig. 23. a, b, c, irregular, lateral production of epibasidia. Surface level of the fructification marked. x 1100.
Fig. 24. Type I of nuclear migration from the hypobasidium. x 1100.
Fig. 25. Type II of nuclear migration from the hypobasidium. a, typical form; b, c, unconstricted type.
Fig. 26. A, Type III of nuclear migration. b, c, d, e, subsequent development.
Fig. 27. A, deep constriction and septum at the base of the fourth segment of the epibasidium; b, constriction without a wall. x 1100.
Fig. 28. a, conjugate mitosis, with nearly parallel orientation; b, c, crossed spindles. x 1865.
Fig. 29. a, b, c, mitotic division figures indicating future crossed orientation of the spindles. In c a remnant of the nucleolus is visible. x 1865.
Fig. 30. Mitosis. a, membranes completely broken down, nucleoli still visible; b, nuclear membranes present in part, nucleoli distinct. x1865.
Fig. 31. a, basidial primordium with the basal wall just formed; b, older primordium with hypobasidium and epibasidium both developing. x 1865.
Fig. 32. A series to show the increase in size from the initiation of the primordium through the hypobasidium production. x 1865.
Fig. 33. Origin of the hypobasidium (See also fig. 31b.) x 1865.
Fig. 34. a, b, nuclei in close association previous to migration into the hypobasidium. x 1865.
Fig. 35. Lag of second nucleus in passage into hypobasidium. x1865.
Fig. 36. a, b, nuclei moving into hypobasidium. In b the first nucleus is prematurely enlarged prior to fusion. x 1865.
Fig. 37. Nuclei in hypobasidium previous to fusion. Note effect of streaming protroplasm. x 1865.
Fig. 38. Nuclear fusion. a, nuclei touching, nuclear membranes still intact; b, nuclei as in a, but enlarged and showing a reticulate nature; c, nuclear membranes broken down and the contents mingling; d, nuclei fusing, one larger than the other with slightly more pronounced reticulations; e, nuclei of different sizes corresponding to their development, both deeper in the hypobasidium than usual. x 1865.
Fig. 39. Fused nuclei with an indentation between the two still apparent. Within the common membrane there is an advancing net development. x 1865.
Fig. 40. a, b, c, stages in nucleolar fusion. x 1865.
Fig. 41. a post-fusion nucleus, with strongly developed network; b, post-fusion nucleus with prominent chromatic beads scattered on the threads. x 1865.
Fig. 42. a, nucleus contracting, the network still pronounced; b, nucleus in resting condition, completely contracted. x 1865.
Fig. 43. a, b, c, examples of nuclear passage from hypobasidium; a, detail of fig. 24; c, detail of fig. 25. x 1865.
Fig. 44. Variation in the initiation of prophasic activity. a, nucleus enlarged, reticulate. x 1865. b, nucleus still in primordial portion. x 1100 with detail x 1865.
Fig. 45. Prophase in sporogenous part of the epibasidium. a, nuclear membrane intact, nucleolus peripheral, network appearing opposite pole of nucleolus; b, the network appearing slightly polarized; c, faint reticulations in enlarged nucleus from epibasidium of Type III. All x 1865.
Fig. 46. Prophase of first meiotic division. The nucleus is elongate, conforming to the shape of the epibasidium. x 1100 with detail x 1865.
Fig. 47. Early prophase with chromatic beads on the threads. x 1865.
Fig. 48. Prophase. a, nucleolus, slightly diminished in size, lying at anterior pole and the threads grouped at the opposite pole. x 1865; b, nucleolus still prominent, the threads less massed and central in position. x 1100 with detail x 1865; c, later prophase, the nucleolus at the periphery, the chromatin densely massed. x 1865.
Fig. 49. Early prophase from an epibasidium with a development corresponding to Type III. x 1865.
Fig. 50. Anaphase. a, intranuclear spindle with scattered chromosomes. Remnants of the nucleolus are visible within the membrane and centrosomes are present at the poles. b, nuclear membrane present in part; nucleolus sharp; c, d, e, membranes broken down and spindles free in cytoplasm; the nuclei have disappeared. x 1865.
Fig, 51. Late anaphase. a, nuclear membrane discernible in part, the nucleolus distinct in the cytoplasm; b, membrane entirely gone, chromosomes massing together as they move to the poles; c., spindle contracted, chromosomes clumped, massing at the poles. The clearer areas at the poles denote the position of the daughter nuclei. x 1865.
Fig. 52. Telophase. c, chromosomes massed at the poles, the two groups still connected by distinct fibers, daughter nuclei organizing; b, daughter nuclei more prominent and the fiber connections diminishing; c, lower nucleus nearly completely organized, the upper not so advanced; fibers prominent in upper region where they are still attached to the nucleus; d, darker area on connecting fibers indicative of wall formation. x 1865.
Fig. 53. Two-nucleate stage. a, upper nucleus completely organized, lower nucleus still showing fiber connections; the wall is just coming in; b, wall just formed and the nuclei farther apart than in a. x 1865.
Fig. 54. Two-nucleate stage. The nuclei are reorganized but the wall is not yet formed. A clearer zone shows its future position. x 1865.
Fig. 55. Second meiotic division. Both spindles are in anaphase, the nuclear membranes have disappeared as well as the nucleoli. x 1865.
Fig. 56. Variation in the synchronization of the second meiotic division. a, lower nucleus in anaphase, nucleolus distinct; upper nucleus in telophase. x 1865; b, lower nucleus in anaphase, with fiber connections still visible and the wall coming in; upper nucleus nearly completely organized, the fibers still just discernible. x 1865; c, daughter nuclei of lower segments completely formed with a wall between; basal nuclei still in telophase with connecting fibers between. x 1100 with detail x 1865.
Fig. 57. Four-nucleate, four-septate epibasidium, two of the walls having just been formed. x 1865.
Fig. 58. a, fourth segment of epibasidum with a basal septum; b, fourth segment with protoplasmic remnants simulating a septum. x 1865.
Fig. 59. Segment from an epibasidum with a nucleus showing two nucleoli. x 1865.
Fig. 60. Budding sterigmata. The wall is not completely formed between the two cell ends. x 1865.
Fig. 61. Sterigma with spore developing on the second segment of the epibasidium. x 1865.
Fig. 62. Sterigmatic formation. In segments 2 and 3 the nuclei are changing form preparatory to passing into the spores. x 1865.
Fig. 63. Variations in sporogenous portion of the epibasidium. a, apical segment with typical sterigma; lower segments developing longer appendages; surface level marked; b, apical segment producing long appendage; surface level marked. Note the bend in the basal segment. c, sterigmatic initiation in the fourth segment; d, sterigmata forming on opposite sides. All x 1100.
Fig. 64. a, b, developing sterigmata with dark staining tips. x 1865.
Fig. 65. Nuclear behavior preparatory to passage into the spores. a, nucleus normal, spore about half developed. Note that the dark-staining tip is still apparent; b, nucleus becoming deeply stainable; protoplasm withdrawing into the developing spore; c, nucleus dark-staining, irregular, attenuate; d, nucleus a homogeneous dark mass. All x 1865.
Fig. 66. Nuclear passage into the spore. a, nucleus in sterigma; b, nucleus of end segment, in sterigma; second segment completely drained of protoplasm and nucleus reorganizing in the spore; c, d, nuclei much drawn out in passage through the sterigmata; e, nucleus mostly within the spore; f, g, nuclei not yet reorganized in the spores; h, one nucleus reorganizing in the spore, nucleus of the basal segment ready to migrate; i, nucleus reorganized in the spore. All x 1865.
Fig. 67. a, nucleus moving into a long appendage without change in form. x 1865; b, sporogenous portion of an epibasidium, all segments of which have produced long appendages. x 1100
Fig. 67. c, d, formation of sterigmata and spores at the ends of long appendages. Nucleus unchanged at this stage. Surface level marked in d; e, f, nuclei prematurely changed for passage into sterigmata and spores. All x 1865.
Fig. 68. a, typical spore; b, spore germinating while still attached to the sterigma; c, d, germination by repetition. x 1865.
Fig. 69. Nucleus changing for passage through germ tube and sterigma into secondary spore. x 1865.
Fig. 70. Germination of spores in hanging-drop cultures. a, stages prior to germ tube production, 24 hours; b, production of germ tubes and secondary spores, 24-48 hours; c, protoplasm withdrawn into secondary spores, 72 hours. All x 734.
Fig. 71. Nuclei showing varying sizes through the cycle and corresponding nucleolar volumes. All from the same section and x 1865. a, dikaryon from terminal hyphal cell; b, dikaryon prior to migration into hypobasidium; c, fusion nucleus in hypobasidium; d, post-fusion, nucleus contracting, nucleolar volume obviously increased; e, nuclei from migrating stages after fusion; f, nuclei from 4-celled stage of epibasidium, prior to sterigmatic formation; g, nuclei from typical spores.
Fig. 72. Helicogloea pinicola, No. 20124. a, forked hypobasidium; b, budding epibasidium sub-apical in position; c, budding epibasidium slightly sub-apical in position; d, typical hypobasidia; e, septate epibasidium; f. spores; g, clamp connections in hyphae.
No. 2055. h, slightly constricted hypobasidium; i, j, forked hypobasidia; k, septate epibasidium with a fourth septum present; l, subapical epibasidium. All figures x 424.
Fig. 73. H. pinicola f. alniviridis. a, origin of epibasidium, hypobasidium forked; b, irregular hypobasidium, typical epibasidium; c, septate epibasidium, two segments of which are already discharged; d, germinating spore; e, proliferation of basidia. All x 434.
Fig. 74. Helicogloea graminicola. a, origin of the hypobasidium; b, mature hypobasidium; c, septate epibasidium. Note that all the protoplasm has not withdrawn from the hypobasidium; d, spores. All x 434.
Fig. 75. Helicogloea intermedia. a, constricted hypobasidium; b, origin of the epibasidium, hypobasidium much constricted; e, proximal production of epibasidium or basal constriction; f, g, h, stages in the development of the clavate type of hypobasidium. All x 734.
Fig. 76. Helicogloea caroliniana, a, variation in the hypobasidium; b, epibasidium; e, epibasidium with developing sterigmata and spore; d, long appendage with sterigma and spore; e, mature spores. All x 1100.
Fig. 77. Helicogloea lagerheimi, No. 42262, marked as var. vulgaris. a, constricted hypobasidium, typical epibasidium of terminal origin; b, intercalary origin of the basidium; c, septate epibasidium with four septa; two segments have already discharged their spores; d, spores. All x 1100.
Fig. 78. Helicogloea lagerheimi, Rick’s material. a, typical hypobasidium and epibasidium; b, c, d, variously constricted hypobasidia; e, intercalary origin of basidium; f, developing sporogenous portion of epibasidium; f. developing sporogenous portion of epibasidium ; g, epibasidium developing sterigmata; h, spores. All x 1100.
Figure 79. a, terminal primordium and hyphae; b, slightly older primordium with origin of hypobasidium; c, hypobasidium more advanced; d, hypobasidium unusually far forward on primordium; e, large, constricted hypobasidium; f, short broad hypobasidium; g, long slender hypobasidium; h, unusually long hypobasidium. All x 1100.
Fig. 80. a, epibasidium just distinguishable; b, epibasidium slightly more advanced; c, epibasidium elongating, hypobasidium emptying; d, epibasidium prior to thickening of sporogenous portion; e, sporogenous portion two-celled; f, sporagenous portion four-celled; g, sporogenous portion four-septate with sterigmata. All x 1100.
Fig. 81. a, four spores; b, three germinating spores; c, one large, one small spore. All x 1100.
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